Formation of major Iroquoian confederacies in the American Northeast.

The birth of confederacies (Haudenosaunee, Wendat, Andaste and many others) marked an important turning point in the diversity of systems of governance of First Nations in the American Northeast. Indeed, the various decision-making levels (clan, village, nation and confederacy), as well as the role attributed to clan mothers as guardians of power, still inspire several forms of governance around the world today.


New France and the French regime

First Nations retained their systems of governance throughout the French presence in North America. Not because the French wanted it, but rather because they were in dire need of First Nations support in the fur trade and defence of New France against the British. However, various epidemics and conflicts reduced First Nations populations and weakened them politically. Nevertheless, they succeeded in retaining their systems of governance and influenced geopolitical governance in North America, even under the British regime.


Royal Proclamation

Document that laid the foundation for the relationship between the Aboriginals of America and the British. The nations are viewed as autonomous political entities, but are placed under the Crown’s protection.


Indian Act

Main Canadian law through which the government exercises its powers with respect to “registered Indians.” Its ultimate objective was the assimilation of First Nations.


Creation of the Quebec Association of Indians

Creation of the Quebec Association of Indians – Organization founded to defend the rights of Indians. It was later replaced by the Assembly of the First Nations of Quebec and Labrador.

Quebec Association of Indians Congress, 1973. Source: http://www.banq.qc.ca/ collections/collection_numerique/coll_arthurlamothe/politique.html?categorie=10


Creation of the National Indian Brotherhood

Organization founded to represent the interests of registered Indians to the federal government.


White Paper

Proposal to abolish the Indian status and eliminate the special services protected by law, with a view to further the assimilation of First Nations.


Indian Control of Indian Education

Document laying out the National Indian Brotherhood’s vision of education through an affirmation of the principles of parental responsibility and local control.


Federal education policy

New policy incorporating the orientations set forth in Indian Control of Indian Education, with the objective of allowing First Nations to progressively take over the administrative responsibility of their education systems.


The Canadian Government/ The Canadian Indian Relationships Paper

Policy framework to strengthen Aboriginal control of program and services.


James Bay and Northern Quebec Agreement

Agreement signed with the Quebec government providing for the political and administrative autonomy of the Cree and Inuit and granting them exclusive hunting, fishing and trapping rights in exchange for rights to develop the territory’s national resources.


Northeastern Quebec Agreement

Agreement signed between Quebec and the Naskapi nation, similar to the agreement signed with the Cree and Inuit.


Summit meeting in Quebec

Meeting between the Quebec government, the Chiefs and other community representatives to renew dialogue between the Quebec government and First Nations.


Federal Indian Health Policy

Policy to improve health status in Indian communities by building on community development, the traditional relationship of trust between Indian people and the federal government and the multipartite Canadian health system.


Berger Report

Recommendation to ensure the participation of First Nations in the management and control of health services in their communities.


Consultation of Atikamekw Montagnais Council member communities

Consultation of Atikamekw Montagnais Council member communities – Consultation led to validate the communities’ interest in taking charge of their health and social services.

Source : http://www.atikamekwsipi.com/fichiers/File/Guide_archives_cna_2011-01-19.pdf.


Creation of the Assembly of First Nations

Political organization that replaced the National Indian Brotherhood and represents more than 630 First Nations communities in Canada. Its mandate is to advocate on behalf of First Nations through their leaders in a range of policy areas.


Constitution Act of 1982

Recognition and confirmation of the ancestral and treaty rights of Aboriginal people in the Canadian Constitution.


Adoption of 15 principles on Aboriginal status and rights

The Quebec government adopted 15 principles through which it recognizes the Aboriginal nations and the necessity of establishing harmonious relationships with them.


Penner Report

Recommendation issued to the federal government to establish a new relationship with First Nations on the basis of Indian self-government.


Quebec National Assembly Resolution

Recognition by the Quebec government of ten Aboriginal nations as well as their ancestral rights and right to self-government.


Creation of the Assembly of the First Nations of Quebec and Labrador

Political organization founded to represent the First Nations of Quebec and defend the interests of the communities.


First Act to authorize an Indian band to exercise and maintain self-government

Within the purview of this Act, the community has the authority to create its own constitution and establish its own government, membership code, legislative powers and system of financial accountability.

Source : http://www.shishalh.com/


Indian Health Transfer Policy (Health Canada)

Framework to transfer the control of health services to First Nations and define the progressive approach through which to transfer these services inspired by the principle of self-determination in health.


Creation of the First Nations of Quebec and Labrador Health and Social Services Commission

Regional organization with a mission to promote and monitor the physical, mental, emotional and spiritual well-being of First Nations and Inuit people, families and communities while improving access to comprehensive and culturally sensitive health and social services programs.


Memorandum of understanding for the transfer of responsibilities from the Department of Indian Affairs to the First Nations of Manitoba

Protocol signed between Canada and the Assembly of Manitoba Chiefs to dismantle and transfer over the responsibilities of the Department of Indian Affairs’ regional office.


Yukon First Nations Self-Government Act

Framework agreement signed with each of Yukon’s fourteen First Nations granting them legislative powers to enact laws in areas including language, culture, health services and education.

Source : http://cyfn.ca/


Policy respecting the inherent right of Aboriginal self-government

Recognition of the constitutional right of First Nations and Inuit to adopt a form of governance that is adapted to their historic, cultural, political and economic circumstances.


Report of the Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples

Recommendations to improve relations between the federal and provincial governments and the First Nations, founded on the recognition of Aboriginal peoples as nations.


Proclamation declaring National Aboriginal Day

Declaration establishing June 21 of each year as National Aboriginal Day, upon the recommendation of the Minister of Indian and Northern Affairs Canada.


Co-Management Agreement with Alberta First Nations

Co-management agreement concluded between the First Nations and Health Canada, granting Alberta Chiefs a shared decision-making power with Health Canada.


Partnership, development, achievement

Québec government guidelines with a view to establishing a new dynamic with the Aboriginal nations. Three objectives are targeted: developing harmonious relationships, increasing self-government and increasing the financial autonomy of Aboriginal people.


The First Nations in Quebec reaffirm the fundamental principles of peaceful co-existence

The Chiefs of the AFNQL adopted 26 principles in response to the Quebec government’s document entitled Partnership, development, achievement. These 26 principles are based on the right to self-determination.


Gathering Strength: Canada’s Aboriginal Action Plan

Federal government’s response to the Report of the Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples, expressing a desire to establish a meaningful partnership with Aboriginal people and redefine their relationships.


Nisga’a Final Agreement

Nisga’a Final Agreement – Agreement signed in British Columbia recognizing the land rights of the Nisga’a and awarding them constitutional protection of their Aboriginal right to self-government.

Source : http://www.nisgaanation.ca/


Agreement Respecting a New Relationship Between the Cree Nation and the Government of Quebec (La paix des braves)

Political and economic agreement between the Quebec government and the Cree nation granting greater self-government and control to the Cree in exchange for the hydroelectric, mining and forestry development of James Bay.


Creation of the Joint Council of Elected Representatives

Political discussion forum entered into by the Quebec government and the AFNQL to promote socioeconomic development and maintain harmonious relations.


First Nations of Quebec Income Security Agreement in Principle

Agreement concluded between the Assembly of the First Nations of Quebec and Labrador and the Department of Indian and Northern Affairs Canada. The agreement concluded in 2005 led to the adoption of the First Nations of Quebec Income Security Policy Framework, to establish an income security system adapted to the cultural and socioeconomic contexts of communities.


Agreement in principle with the First Nations of Mamuitun and Nutashkuan

Agreement providing the framework for a future treaty and addressing the recognition of their rights, the exercise of selfgovernment and the promotion of the development of the communities of Mamuitun and Nutashkuan.

Source : http://www.mamuitun.com/contexte-negociation.asp


Mashteuiatsh socioeconomic forum

Event bringing together representatives from First Nations, levels of government and civil society, and leading to the governments’ formal commitment to improve the living conditions of Quebec First Nations.


Quebec First Nations Health and Social Services Blueprint, 2007-2017: Closing the gaps… Accelerating change

A First Nations blueprint defining five strategic orientations, including an orientation on a renewed approach to governance fostering self-determination.


United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples

This declaration states that indigenous peoples have the right to selfdetermination and that they can freely determine their political status and their economic, social and cultural development. Four countries, including Canada, did not adhere to the Declaration in 2007. On November 12, 2010, Canada officially announced its support for the Declaration.


First Nations: Essential to the Future of

Principles and issues the AFNQL wanted to bring up during the Quebec electoral campaign.


Creation of the First Nations Information Governance Centre

National organization with a mission to build capacity and provide credible and relevant information on First Nations while respecting the rights of First Nations self-determination for research and information management.


Settlement Agreement with Bigstone Cree Nation

Regulation governing the historical land claims of the Bigstone and Peerless Trout First Nations in Alberta.

Source : http://www.bigstone.ca/


Framework agreement between the Crees and the Government of Quebec

Framework policy on governance in the Eeyou Istchee James Bay territory and the modernization of the governance regime.


First Nations and Inuit Health Branch Strategic Plan

A strategic plan designed to promote collaborative models of health and health care that support individuals, families and communities from a holistic perspective, while respecting the partners’ respective jurisdictional roles and responsibilities, as well as to advance strategic goals by maintaining effective relationships with First Nations.


Health Canada transfer to First Nations of British Columbia

Health Canada transferred over to the First Nations Health Authority its responsibility over the design, management and delivery of health programs and services for the First Nations of British Columbia.

Source : http://fnbc.info/about-us


Adoption of the vision, principles and values of the health and social services governance project of the First Nations in Quebec

Adoption of the vision, principles and values of the health and social services governance project of the First Nations in Quebec – One vision, eight principles and six values were ratified by the Chiefs of the AFNQL in order to guide the overall approach being taken by First Nations.



Agreement with the Ministère de la Famille du Québec

The FNQLHSSC concluded a transfer of authority agreement with the ministry that will allow it to better support the development and improvement of child care services in First Nations communities.


Declaration of the Rights of First Nations Children

On June 12, 2015, the Chiefs of the Assembly of First Nations Quebec-Labrador met in the Innu community of Essipit to adopt the Declaration of the Rights of First Nations Children (DRFNC).

Declaration of the Rights of First Nations Children


Release of the final report

Release of the final report of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada


An Act respecting First Nations, Inuit and Métis children, youth and families

the Government of Canada is committed to implementing the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples. Act respecting First Nations, Inuit and Métis children, youth and families.


Signing of a tripartite Memorandum of Understanding on health and social services governance for Quebec First Nations

The Memorandum of Understanding paves the way for better access to health and social services and better delivery of those services. It confirms the commitment made by all parties to address the challenges resulting from the multiple levels of jurisdiction. The Memorandum of Understanding will also support the search for various governance models tailored to the realities and needs of Quebec First Nations.


First Nations Education Council Regional Education Agreement

On July 14, the First Nations Education Council, its 22 member communities in Quebec, and Indigenous Services Canada announced a Regional Education Agreement that will advance First Nations control over education for almost 5,800 students.